Private Consulting Studies Relating to Environment & Pollution in Syria - Free Scientific Help for Arabic Environmental Engineering Students

Dr.Eng Abdulrzzak Alturkmani
Website Master


Technical University of Civil Engineering of Bucharest


Sanitary Engineering and Water Protection Department



Advisor: Prof. Dr. Eng. ALEXANDRU MANESCU




Many industries produce waste streams that must be treated prior to discharge into the environment. Technologies of industrial wastewater treatment have evolved significantly in response to government regulation of pollution. Industries are constantly seeking effective and economic alternatives for disposing of wastes

To get better understanding of industrial discharges impacts on our environment and to accomplish the   appropriate strategies of pollution prevention, different characteristics, variables, effects of industrial wastewater have discussed, in details, in this study

Depending upon the quantum, concentration, toxicity, and presence of non-biodegradable organics in an industrial waste, the treatment may consist of any one or more of the following processes: preliminary treatment, physical treatment, chemical treatment and biological treatment. All of these treatment methods have discussed also in this thesis. Knowing these treatment systems will extent our choices to select the best solution for treating the industrial wastewater discharges

The dairy industry is generally considered to be the largest source of food processing wastewater in many countries, e.g. Syria. Although the dairy industry is not commonly associated with severe environmental problems, it must continually consider its environmental impact, particularly as dairy pollutants are mainly of organic origin. For dairy companies with good effluent management systems in place, treatment is not a major problem, but when accidents happen, the resulting publicity can be embarrassing and very costly. Most of dairy processing ways and dairy wastewater treatments have discussed in this study

Cheese whey is a warm, high-strength organic waste produced during the manufacturing of cheese. Since, recent researches have determined that anaerobic biological treatment is successful in treating high-strength industrial wastes(such as whey). Therefore, current research is being conducted to evaluate the anaerobic treatment of whey

A pilot-scale of anaerobic stirred batch reactor (AnSBR) was undertaken to asses its applicability to be a primary stage of whey treatment. The AnSBR reactor was fed with fresh whey (75000 mg of COD per litre) diluted with water in different concentrations. A COD removal efficiency of >= 76 % was achieved when the reactor was operated at a HRT longer than 5 days and an OLR lower than 10 g COD/l.d. The organic loading rates increased step by step to provide a good condition for anaerobic bacteria acclimation with high organic loads. The COD removal efficiency decreased to less than 74 % when the OLR was increased above 15 g COD/l.d. The maximum removal of COD was 87% for 7.5 g COD/l.d of OLR

The production of biogas, in our study, increased continuously, day by day, until reaching to a constant value nearly. The maximum production of biogas was 0.32 litre per gram of COD removed or 20.8 L of biogas per litre of whey

Ferric ions addition has an improving effect on methanogenesis by increasing the methane production and acetate conversion rate. By adding 50 mg/l of FeC13 to the AnSBR in our experiment, the biogas production increased 50%

Temperature controlling on 38 0C was stopped to evaluate the performance of the reactor for biogas production. The temperature dropped from 38 to 210C, and then the biogas production reduced 45% 

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